Abstract: This article utilises a model of the economy that includes the non-market, Indigenous customary sector. It seeks to “Indigenise” the economy by using available NATSISS 2002 data on fishing and hunting activities, art and craft production, and Indigenous people’s ability to meet cultural responsibilities while in employment. Other ABS statistics ignore the non-market sector and hence understate the extent of Indigenous economic participation and wellbeing. Whilst it has significant shortcomings, NATSISS 2002 provides statistics which challenge standard measures of economic activity and development and support the view that the real economy in remote Indigenous Australia is made up of three sectors rather than two. The policy ramifications of this are that the customary sector might provide economic opportunity, and that major programs like the Community Development Employment Projects (CDEP) scheme, as well as land rights and native title, might be useful instruments to facilitate enhanced customary participation with positive livelihood outcomes.