Abstract: It is becoming increasingly important to monitor biodiversity in the extensive Australian rangelands; currently however, there is no method capable of achieving this goal. There are two potential sources of relevant data that cover the Australian rangelands, and from which measures of biodiversity might be extracted: traditional field-based methods such as quadrat surveys have collected flora and fauna species data throughout the rangelands, but at fine scale; satellite remote sensing collects biologically relevant, spatially comprehensive data. The goal of this thesis was to provide the spatially comprehensive measure of biodiversity required for informed management of the Australian rangelands. The study specifically focused on the Stony Plains in the South Australian rangelands. To that end the thesis aimed to develop indices capable of measuring and/or monitoring biodiversity from vegetation quadrat survey data and remotely sensed data.