Abstract: Background Aboriginal children living in remote communities are at high risk of early and persistent otitis media. Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are primary pathogens. Vaccines with potential to prevent early OM have not been evaluated in this population. We compared immunogenicity (ELISA and opsonophagocytic activity) of a combination of Synflorix™ (PHiD-CV10, 10 serotypes and protein D of NTHi) and Prevenar13™ (PCV13, 10 serotypes plus 3, 6A, and 19A), with recommended schedules. Methods This open-label superiority trial randomised (1:1:1) Aboriginal infants at 28 to 38 days of age, to PCV13 (P) at 2-4-6 months (_PPP), PHiD-CV10 (S) at 2-4-6 months (_SSS), or PHiD-CV10 at 1-2-4 plus PCV13 at -6 months (SSSP). Primary outcomes (blinded) were immunogenicity against PCV13-only serotypes 3, 6A, 19A, and PHiD-CV10-only protein D at 7 months. Secondary outcomes include immunogenicity against all serotypes at 2, 4 and 7 months. Findings Between 2011 and 2017, 425 infants were allocated to _PPP(143), _SSS(141) or SSSP(141). An intention to treat approach including all available data was used. The SSSP group had superior immunogenicity against serotypes 3, 6A, and 19A compared to _SSS (OPA GMT ratios 8.1 to 59.5, p<0.001), and against protein D compared to _PPP (GMC ratio 11.9 (95%CI 9.7 to 14.6)). Immune responses to protein D and 3, 6A, and 19A in SSSP were not significantly lower (i.e. no harm) than either _SSS or _PPP. For ten common serotypes responses at 2, 4 and 7 months were superior for SSSP (following 1-, 2-, and 4- doses) than _SSS and _PPP (following 0-, 1-, and 3- doses). At 4 months, _SSS was superior to _PPP. Reactogenicity and hospitalisations were rare and unrelated to the intervention. Interpretation From two months, the 1-2-4-6-month combined schedule (SSSP) was safe and significantly more immunogenic than 2-4-6-month schedules. The earlier responses may be beneficial in high-risk populations.
Jane Leach, Amanda, Kim Mulholland, Edward, Santosham, Mathuram, John Torzillo, Paul, McIntyre, Peter, Smith-Vaughan, Heidi, Wilson, Nicole, Arrowsmith, Beth, Beissbarth, Jemima, Chatfield, Mark D., Oguoma, Victor M., Licciardi, Paul, Skull, Sue, Andrews, Ross, Carapetis, Jonathan, McDonnell, Joseph, Krause, Vicki, Stanley Morris, Peter, 2021, Interchangeability, immunogenicity and safety of a combined 10-valent pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (Synflorix) and 13-valent-PCV (Prevenar13) schedule at 1-2-4-6 months: PREVIX_COMBO, a 3-arm randomised controlled trial, Journal Article, viewed 30 November 2023, https://www.nintione.com.au/?p=23794.