Abstract: 1. This report stems from the National Water Initiatives’ inclusion of Indigenous interest in future water management. 2. In the context of Indigenous and non-Indigenous water planning, the study details Two Cape York Studies - one at Aurukun and one at Coen. The responses of Traditional Owners to planning proposals and the researchers’ interpretation of these responses form a major part of the report. 3. The report deals with the broader implications of future water policy for Indigenous land holders and their communities. The lack of appreciation of Indigenous water values and past failure to gain meaningful input into policy from Indigenous spokespersons has led to a serious mismatch of processes and expectations. Recommendations are made to remove procedural constraints to cooperative planning in future policy planning activities. 4. Ten conclusions are reached to guide more effective Indigenous water planning in the future.