Abstract: This RIRDC report is interested in whether fair trade could be useful to Indigenous Australians who are developing businesses, based on their knowledge and ‘country’; enterprises that could strengthen their confidence, economy and culture. It is also interested in whether such certification could be linked to or be part of the broader global fair trade movement. This study focused on three potential industries for certification: bush foods, Aboriginal tourism, and handicrafts and art in three regional centres in Broom (WA), Darwin (NT) and Alice Springs (NT). Although people have been working with bush foods for 20 years, it is still a relatively immature industry but there is considerable interest in Aboriginal participation. Cultural tourism related to Aboriginal culture and legends is seen as an important and growing segment in northern Australia, particularly the Northern Territory.