Abstract: The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework (HPF) was developed to support a comprehensive and coordinated effort across and beyond the health sector to address the complex and interrelated factors that contribute to health outcomes experienced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. The biennial HPF report is the authoritative evidence base for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health policy and is well recognised for its innovative approach to combining evidence from national data collections and research literature with policy analysis. The HPF report presents a high level summary of data and policy analysis for 68 performance measures across three tiers: Health status and outcomes Determinants of health, including socioeconomic and behavioural factors Health system performance. Evidence from the 2014 HPF report is being used to monitor progress towards achieving the Council of Australian Government (COAG) targets for Closing the Gap in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health outcomes (and the factors underpinning these), as well as the implementation of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan. The reports are auspiced by the Australian Health Ministers’ Advisory Council (AHMAC), which includes representatives from all jurisdictions. Content is developed and coordinated by the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet in consultation with the Department of Health. For each HFP report, the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) has published detailed analyses of the data prepared for each measure.