Abstract: AIMS: To explore the in vitro ability of alpha haemolytic streptococcus (AHS) and lactobacilli (LBs), from Indigenous Australian children, to inhibit the growth of respiratory pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis), also from Indigenous Australian children. METHODS AND RESULTS: The bacterial interference of 91 isolates, from Indigenous Australian children both with and without otitis media (OM) or rhinorrhoea, was investigated using agar overlay and cell-free supernatant. Promising isolates underwent whole genome sequencing to investigate upper respiratory tract tropism, antibiotic resistance and virulence. Antibiotic susceptibility was examined for ampicillin, amoxicillin +clavulanic acid and azithromycin. Differences in the strength of bacterial inferences in relation to OM was examined using a case series of three healthy and three children with OM. LBs readily inhibited the growth of pathogens. AHS were less effective, although several isolates inhibited S. pneumoniae. One L. rhamnosus had genes coding for pili to adhere to epithelial cells. We detected antibiotic resistance genes coding for antibiotic efflux pump and ribosomal protection protein. LBs were susceptible to antimicrobials in vitro. Screening for virulence detected genes encoding for two putative capsule proteins. Healthy children had AHS and LB that were more potent inhibitors of respiratory pathogens in vitro than children with OM. CONCLUSIONS: L. rhamnosus from remote Indigenous Australian children are potent inhibitors of respiratory pathogens in vitro. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF STUDY: Respiratory/ear disease are endemic in Indigenous Australians. There is an urgent call for more effective treatment/prevention; beneficial microbes have not been explored. L. rhamnosus investigated in this study are potent inhibitors of respiratory pathogens in vitro and require further investigation.
Coleman, A., Håkansson, A., Grahn Håkansson, E., Cottrell, K., Bialasiewicz, S., Zaugg, J., Cervin, A., 2022, In vitro Inhibition of respiratory pathogens by lactobacillus and alpha haemolytic streptococci from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, Volume:132, Journal Article, viewed 05 December 2023, https://www.nintione.com.au/?p=29550.