Abstract: This paper uses the Australian Bureau of Statistics' Business Longitudinal Survey to explore relationships between training, innovation, and firm performance for Australian businesses with less than 200 employees. The longitudinal nature of the data is used to test various hypotheses about the nature of the link between training, business changes, and innovation. The paper finds strong evidence of changes in training being associated with the occurrence of innovations over the period of the survey and, to a minor extent, of a link between innovation and the level of on-the-job training being provided in the final year of the survey. These two findings offer some support to sustain a claim that training in itself brings about innovation: (1) firms that undertake formal business or strategic planning are both higher trainers and higher innovators; and (2) using Internet-related activities as an applied example of innovation, evidence is found of a positive link between increases in management training and the adoption of e-commerce. The paper points out, however, that the analysis is significantly constrained by the quality of the data--in particular to the instruments used for measuring training and also for measures of innovation, both of which are far from ideal.