Abstract: This paper argues that the advent of Township Leasing has made some progress towards more inclusive economic and political institutions on ALRA land in the Northern Territory. It is likely this has led, and will lead, to better socio-economic outcomes for the people living there. However, Township Leasing is not an end unto itself and should only be viewed as a worthy stepping-stone to full Traditional Owner autonomy and control over their own land. To that end, the final section of the paper makes some recommendations to enhance Township Leasing. These include: continuing to increase support for Community-Entity Township Leasing; streamline the negotiation process; extend the sc ope of Township Leasing; and upgrade the monitoring and evaluation of its impact.