Abstract: The impetus for the Rangelands Reform Program arose from two reviews into the pastoral industry held in 2009 – the Southern Rangelands Pastoral Advisory Group’s A Review of the Economic and Ecological Sustainability of Pastoralism in the Southern Rangelands of Western Australia, and A Review of the Process to Permit Diversification on Pastoral Leasehold Land in Western Australia. The substantive findings of these two reviews were that traditional grazing enterprises continue to experience a long term decline in profitability and the condition of the Rangeland resource upon which they depend. Greater diversity of economic activity and land use offer the most realistic means of sustaining pastoralists and remote communities into the future but require expanded options in the tenure arrangements that govern Crown land in Western Australia. The intention of the Rangelands Reform Program is to establish these expanded tenure options to promote and facilitate economic development and preservation of the rangelands in the long term; streamline government processes and procedures that affect new business development; and identify region-specific economic development opportunities, while maintaining the social fabric and environmental sustainability of the rangelands. The Rangelands Reform Program will also assist with the development of the government’s vision for the rangelands. A key action is to amend the Western Australian Government’s Land Administration Act 1997 (LAA) to provide options for new forms of tenure, such as a rangelands lease which will allow for broad scale and varied uses provided that use is consistent with the preservation and ongoing management of the rangelands. Together with the option of a perpetual pastoral lease and new diversification permit provisions, the key benefits will be greater flexibility, security and incentive for the pastoral industry and investment opportunities for new entrants.