Abstract: At its meeting of 17-19 September 2002 the Council for TRIPS requested the Secretariat to periodically update its summary notes of issues raised and points made in the Council's work on three items of its agenda: namely the review of the provisions of Article 27.3 (b); the relationship between the TRIPS Agreement and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD); and the protection of traditional knowledge and folklore. It was requested that this be done not after every meeting, but when significant new material had been presented. The present document, which replaces the earlier summary note in IP/C/W/370, responds to this request with respect to the protection of traditional knowledge and folklore. This note is divided into three major sections. The first concerns general issues relating to the protection of traditional knowledge; the second concerns the granting of patents in respect of traditional knowledge; and the third concerns consent and benefit sharing.