Abstract: Taking a public health approach, 'The Health of Indigenous Australians' places detailed information about specific health conditions affecting indigenous people within a broad social framework. Introduction (Neil Thomson) 1. The need for Indigenous health information, Neil Thomson 2. The economic and social context of Indigenous health, Jon Altman 3. Births, deaths and hospitalization, Neil Thomson and 4. Nutrition and growth, Jane Burns and Jen Irvine 5. Diabetes, Jen Irvine, Ellie Kirov, and Neil Thomson 6. Mental health, Ernest Hunter 7. Substance misuse among Indigenous Australians, Dennis Gray and Sherry Saggers 8. Cardiovascular disease, Neil Thomson and Janette Brooks 9. Cancer, Ellie Kirov, Jacinta Francis and Neil Thomson 10. Respiratory system disorders, Neil Thomson, Ellie Kirov, and Mohammed Ali 11. Ear disease and hearing loss, Samantha Burrow and Neil Thomson 12. Eye health, Jane Burns and Neil Thomson 13. Gastrointestinal disorders, Mohammed Ali and Neil Thomson 14. Indigenous oral health, Jane Harford, John Spencer and Kaye Roberts-Thomson 15. Disorders of the renal-urologic system, Samantha Burrow and Neil Thomson 16. Skin infections and infestations, Bart Currie and Bianca McGougan 17. Pneumococcal disease, Peter McIntyre 18. Other communicable diseases, Jane Burns, Samantha Burrow, Melissa Pumphrey, Etham Sims, and Neil Thomson 19. Injury, Neil Thomson and Janette Brooks 20. Disabilities, Jane Burns and Neil Thomson 21. Summary, Neil Thomason.