Abstract: This chapter is concerned with the legal issues surrounding the branding of traditional cultural expressions (TCEs), traditional words, images, symbols, music, performances or objects. Over the past few decades, ethnicity trends combined with today’s digital culture have prompted a significant increase in both the commercial and non-commercial branding of TCEs by indigenous communities as well as by third parties. Branding is a process that involves the creation of a unique name and image for a product in the consumers’ mind through advertising campaigns or merchandising with a consistent theme. Branding aims to establish a significant and differentiated presence in the marketplace that attracts and retains loyal customers. It is not limited to goods and services, and can also apply to people, places and communities. The chapters in this volume were first presented at the conference ‘Intellectual Property, Trade and the Knowledge Assets of Indigenous Peoples: The Developmental Frontier’ in December 2010. Traditional knowledge systems are also innovation systems. This book analyses the relationship between intellectual property and indigenous innovation. The contributors come from different disciplinary backgrounds including law, ethnobotany and science. Drawing on examples from Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands, each of the contributors explores the possibilities and limits of intellectual property when it comes to supporting innovation by indigenous people.