Abstract: Though shrub-encroached landscapes are viewed by some as ‘ecological deserts’, we know little of the biodiversity that they support. We investigated the shrub-resident arthropods in a turpentine (Eremophila sturtii)-silver cassia (Senna artemisioides) shrubland in eastern Australia, and how fine-scale shrub density affects these communities. We found that turpentine supported six times more arthropods than silver cassia (Hemiptera, Psocoptera and Collembola), as well as a distinct species assemblage of Hemipterans. Fine-scale shrub density also affects the Hemipteran community, particularly on silver cassia. We have shown that shrub-encroached landscapes support healthy arthropod communities, which are structured by shrub species and fine-scale patterns of shrub density.