Abstract: This paper reports on an investigation of the role of positive self-identity in affecting school outcomes for Australian Indigenous students. Positive self-identity has been suggested as one of the factors which result in greater commitment and connection to schooling by Indigenous students, leading to better school outcomes. Consultations were conducted with a national sample of Indigenous community members (students, parents/carers, teachers, Aboriginal and (Torres Strait) Islander Education Workers—AIEWs), and non-Indigenous teachers. Overall, the students expressed positive self-identity as Indigenous people, but this did not necessarily translate into successful educational outcomes. The crucial link to school outcomes seemed to be positive self-identity as a learner. A number of factors involved in developing positive learner identity were proposed by study participants, including those related to (a) teachers; (b) school climate, organisation, and curriculum; (c) family and community support; and (d) role models.