Abstract: Objectives. This study assessed the validity of a global measure of self-assessed health among Indigenous Australians. Methods. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with self-assessed health in a nationally representative sample. Results. Among 8782 adult respondents, poorer self-assessed health was strongly associated with several factors, including age, number of health conditions, and recent health actions. The association with health conditions was attenuated when the respondent's primary language was not English. Conclusions. Self-assessed health may be a valid measure among indigenous Australians whose primary language is English. However, although the measure draws on common experiences of health and illness, it may obscure differences in how people incorporate these experiences into social actions.