Abstract: • Vast areas of the southern rangelands are now considered economically un-viable • Environmental degradation is serious, widespread and continues • Western Australia now has a comprehensive rangelands land resource dataset • A land use planning approach is needed, based on social, economic and environmental criteria, to map areas with common social, economic and environmental characteristics • Interventions, based on areas with common characteristics, are required to achieve sustainable management including incentives and enforcement of the sustainable provisions in the LAA Act • Funding, governance and restoration approaches will also be required. • Time is critical. The southern rangelands need re-imaging now to restore ecosystem function and ongoing sustainable productive capacity. This paper focuses on the natural resources of the southern rangelands of Western Australia, from the Pilbara south, where the main activities (based on area) are pastoralism, tourism, Aboriginal cultural activities and living areas, formal conservation reserves, and extractive mining activities, with mining making the greatest economic contribution. Prior to European settlement these ecosystems were utilised by Aboriginal people through sustainable nomadic systems.