Abstract: Climate and ocean changes will affect all of Queensland’s marine, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in ways that are more widespread and, in many situations, more extreme than currently recognised. The modelling and synthesis undertaken in this working paper indicate that all ecosystems across Queensland are expected to experience significant environmental change. Minimising the impact that ecosystem change is projected to have on Queensland’s biodiversity will require a shift in management objectives away from protecting the most threatened species or preserving the current state of ecosystems, to prioritising ecosystem functioning and supporting the natural movement of species. This background paper presents a brief overview of observed trends in climate change and projections for Queensland. It provides context for the discussion of ecological change as a result of climate change in Working Papers 12B to 12G.