Abstract: This paper reviews the most recent literature on Indigenous income, noting pitfalls in applying standard poverty research techniques to Indigenous society. The purpose of this review is to derive the best estimates available of the income level of Indigenous people in Australia, an estimate which is then used as the basis for a series of tests of the efficacy of this variable as a predictor of Indigenous mortality. The conclusion is that, although Indigenous Australians are, on average, extremely poor compared to the Australian population as a whole, the mortality gap is out of all proportion to the income gap. Non-Indigenous Australians at a similar income level have completely different mortality patterns from Indigenous Australians, as do much poorer people in other countries. The paper discusses a number of methodological issues prompted by this conclusion.