Abstract: Despite the overall growth of the Australian population there are significant levels of population decline in some regions. Depopulation has often been caused by technological and economic change. In some cases this trend creates a vicious cycle of population loss, service decline and further out-migration. The public policy maker is faced with a difficult balance between equity and efficiency considerations as regional population decline leads to increasing per capita costs of service and infrastructure provision. This paper highlights regions in Australia which are experiencing depopulation, examining causes, impacts and policy implications.