Abstract: In 1994 a national program of research and development was established by the Australian Nature Conservation Agency, now part of the Biodiversity Group of Environment Australia (EA), and the Land and Water Resources Research and Development Corporation (LWRRDC) to devise improved methods of managing bushland. Native vegetation provides many benefits and services to agriculture, helps maintain the health of land and water, and provides a home for Australia’s unique biodiversity. Given the integral role of native vegetation in sustainable land management, it is important to understand the ecological, social and economic factors that have an impact on the conservation and management of this increasingly scarce resource. With this in mind, the EA/ LWRRDC National Remnant Vegetation R&D Program (hereinafter called ‘the Program’) has focused on tree-dominated ecosystems on the highly cleared regions of southern Australia, where private land ownership and management occurs across much of the landscape. When the Program started, pressing needs for R&D were identified in these regions. The major goal of the Program is to assist government agencies, community groups and landholders to better manage and protect remnant native vegetation through the application of improved knowledge and understanding gained from research, with a strong emphasis on practical outcomes. To help achieve this goal, the Program focused on three major aspects — ecological research, socioeconomic research and six, State-based regional pilot planning projects. Several important insights into the conservation and management of remnant native vegetation have arisen from research undertaken in the Program — and the range of communication activities at the project level has been varied and extensive. This publication focuses on the Program level, synthesising the key findings and messages across the broad range of projects, and setting them in the wider context of other research undertaken on these topics.