Abstract: Trade, intellectual property and indigenous knowledge systems — the value systems, the cultural contexts, the very world views that these three simple terms can evoke are often assumed to be dramatically, fundamentally at odds with one another: worlds apart. Yet the past decade, especially, has seen the growth and maturing of a remarkable dialogue between these seemingly remote world views. The chapters in this volume were first presented at the conference ‘Intellectual Property, Trade and the Knowledge Assets of Indigenous Peoples: The Developmental Frontier’ in December 2010. Traditional knowledge systems are also innovation systems. This book analyses the relationship between intellectual property and indigenous innovation. The contributors come from different disciplinary backgrounds including law, ethnobotany and science. Drawing on examples from Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands, each of the contributors explores the possibilities and limits of intellectual property when it comes to supporting innovation by indigenous people.