Abstract: This discussion paper highlights key educational challenges and issues that impact on the learning outcomes of regional, rural and remote students. It aims to create a springboard for fresh ideas to improve outcomes for these students. The independent reviewer has prepared the discussion paper based on an extensive literature review. The paper outlines nine themes that impact significantly on student learning outcomes: (1) curriculum and assessment; (2) teachers and teaching; (3) leaders and leadership; (4) school and community; (5) information and communication technology; (6) entrepreneurship and schools; (7) improving access - enrolments, clusters, distance education and boarding; (8) diversity; and (9) transitioning beyond school. Edited excerpt from publisher's website.