Abstract: The 14-month project was completed in June 2005 and included a review of the literature and relevant legislation, consultations, and a web-based survey of police in the Northern Territory (NT), Queensland (Qld), South Australia (SA) and Western Australia (WA). The questionnaire was piloted among 35 Western Australian police and was modified slightly for police in South Australia and Queensland. There were 792 responses, including 493 from police in non-urban areas (regional and rural towns, and remote settlements). A minority of the non-urban police (58) worked in remote Indigenous communities. The research team visited a number of locations, meeting with local community representatives and service providers to gain insights into drug use and its consequences in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Lands (APY) (SA), in the Goldfields and Ngaanyatjarra Lands (WA), the Tiwi Islands (NT), Rockhampton and Woorabinda (Qld) and Queanbeyan (New South Wales).