Abstract: We describe the first case of HTLV associated bronchiolitis to be associated with HTLV-1c subtype infection. An Aboriginal man with HTLV-1 infection was repeatedly admitted to Alice Springs Hospital, central Australia, with hypercapnic respiratory failure from the age of 28 years. High resolution CT chest findings were consistent with bronchiolitis and large numbers of lymphocytes were found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). After extensive investigations failed to find a cause, he was tested for HTLV-1 and found to have a high HTLV-1c proviral load (6.8%) in peripheral blood leukocytes and in BALF (4.7%). The administration of systemic corticosteroids resulted in a rapid clinical response; however, he did not continue treatment after discharge and died due to respiratory failure in the community.