Abstract: Resource boom towns have experienced recurring housing shortages and affordability crises. Government and industry need to address housing shortages to ensure appropriate social and economic outcomes in these locations. • Considerable challenges are faced in managing the housing implications of mining activity including: the diversity in scale and nature of the industry and its impacts; the cyclical and often unpredictable nature of the resources industry; the propensity for mining to be located in regional and remote areas; changing technology and labour market practices; and differences in policy and institutional arrangements across Australian jurisdictions. • The lack of available and/or affordable housing has a direct impact on the ability of public and private sectors in resource boom towns to attract and retain staff, especially in the service sector. • The sustainability and liveability of resource boom towns could be greatly enhanced if the design and planning of towns was undertaken with an eye to permanence and a diversification of the economic base underpinning the local economy. • Successful housing strategies in mining communities require coordinated action by all spheres of government as well as the mining and residential property industries. • Responsive governance structures are critical to planning effectively for an adequate supply and mix of housing in mining communities and, in particular, to address the issue of affordability.