Abstract: Australia has 2 distinct indigenous groups, Torres Strait Islanders and Aborigines. The Aborigines, described in this report, first colonized the continent 65 millennia ago. Those still living in the Northern Territory (NT) retain much ancestrally derived genetic complement but also are the most health-challenged by environment and lifestyle in 21st century. Reports providing overviews of these disparities are, as yet, rare.This review defines the studied population and then describes and attempts to explain contemporary clinical findings among Australia’s remote-dwelling Aborigines, principally in the NT. The report is structured by life stage and then by organ system. Finally, a brief synthesis is advanced concerning the disparities that Australia’s Aboriginals face.In 2015–2017, NT aboriginal life expectancy for people then born was 66.6 years for men and 69.9 years for women compared with 78.1 and 82.7 years, respectively, among nonindigenous Territorians. Principal causes of the reduced longevity, with nonindigenous comparisons, include adolescent pregnancy, with maternal use of alcohol and tobacco (each 7-fold greater); fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; skin infections, both scabies and impetigo (50-fold greater); rheumatic heart disease (260-fold greater); premature acute myocardial infarction (9-fold greater); bronchiectasis (40-fold greater); lung cancer (2-fold greater); diabetes mellitus (10-fold greater); renal failure (30-fold greater); and suicide (2-fold greater). Some disease has genetic roots, secondary to prolonged genetic drift. Much arises from avoidable stressors and from contemporary environmental disparities in housing. The Europid diet is also not helpful.