Abstract: Climate change is the greatest ecological, economic, and social challenge of our time. Climate change research over many years shows links between human activities and warming of the atmosphere and oceans. This warming has caused changes to the climate system, such as changes in rain and wind patterns, and reductions in Arctic sea ice. Climate change adaptation involves taking action to adapt to climate change and to plan and prepare for the risk of future change. Climate change mitigation refers to actions that aim to limit greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, either by reducing emissions or by increasing the amount of carbon dioxide stored in natural sinks. This publication provides the latest scientific knowledge on a series of climate change topics relevant to Australia and the world. It draws on peer-reviewed literature contributed to by thousands of researchers.