Abstract: Fire is pivotal to the functioning of ecosystems in Australia, affecting the distribution and abundance of the continents̕ unique and highly diverse range of plants and animals. Conservation of this natural biodiversity therefore requires a good understanding of scientific processes involved in the action of fire on the landscape. This book provides a synthesis of current knowledge in this area and its application in contemporary land management. Central to the discussion is an exploration of the concept of the fire regime - the cumulative pattern of fires and their individual characteristics (fire type, frequency, intensity and season) - and its interactions with biodiversity. Contributions by thirty two leading experts cover a broad sweep of topics, including pre-history, future climate change, fire behaviour, modelling of temporal and spatial patterns, plant and animal life-cycles, case studies of major ecosystems, and management policies and systems. Contents 1. A history of fire in Australia / A. Peter Kershaw, et al 2. Importance of a changing climate for fire regimes in Australia / Geoffrey J. Cary 3. Fire properties and burn patterns in heterogeneous landscapes / Wendy Catchpole 4. Fire regimes in landscapes: models and realities / Michael A. McCarthy and Geoffrey J. Cary 5. Critical life cycles of plants and animals: developing a process-based understanding of population changes in fire-prone landscapes / Robert J. Whelan, et al 6. Spatial variability in fire regimes: its effects on recent and past vegetation / James S. Clark, et al 7. Fire regimes in the spinifex landscapes of Australia / Grant E. Allan and Richard I. Southgate 8. The role of fire regimes in temperate lowland grasslands of south-eastern Australia / Ian D. Lunt and John W. Morgan 9. Fire regimes in Australian heathlands and their effects on plants and animals / David A. Keith, et al 10. Fire regimes and biodiversity in semi-arid mallee ecosystems / Ross A. Bradstock and Janet S. Cohn 11. Fire regimes in Acacia wooded landscapes: effects on functional processes and biological diversity / Ken C. Hodgkinson 12. Fire regimes and biodiversity in the savannas of northern Australia / Richard J. Williams, et al 13. Fire regimes and their effects in Australian temperate woodlands / Richard Hobbs 14. Fire regimes and fire management of rainforest communities across northern Australia / Jeremy Russell-Smith and Peter Stanton 15. Fire regimes and biodiversity of forested landscapes of southern Australia / A. Malcolm Gill and Peter C. Catling 16. Fire regimes in semi-arid and tropical pastoral lands: managing biological diversity and ecosystem function / James C. Noble and Anthony C. Grice 17. Fire management and biodiversity conservation: key approaches and principles / David A. Keith, et al 18. Fire regimes and biodiversity: legacy and vision / A. Malcolm Gill, et al.