Abstract: One hundred and sixteen three to five year old Aboriginal children were included in an evaluation of the effect of preschool meals programmes on their nutritional health. Sixty-one children attending preschools in five communities were examined at the beginning and end of the school year. Fifty-five control children in five matched communities had two examinations, 38 weeks apart. Height, weight and haemoglobin concentrations were determined on all children and serum levels of ascorbic acid, ferritin, iron, total protein, albumin, cholesterol and triglycerides were determined on a subsample. Aboriginal children in both groups had initial measurements and nutrient levels below acceptable levels. The 61 children who received preschool meals had consistently better growth than the control children. A negative correlation was found between gains in weight and height and serum levels of ferritin, haemoglobin and ascorbic acid, indicating that more rapidly growing children may have been rapidly utilizing nutrients for growth.