Abstract: A cost-effectiveness analysis based on a bioeconomic model was carried out with regard to specific feral camel control strategies in central Australia. Two different aerial control strategies were modelled for the period 2009–20. Strategy 1 involved annual removals, whereas strategy 2 involved periodic removals only when a specific feral camel density was reached. The direct benefits to the pastoral industry of feral camel control were also modelled in terms of reduced grazing competition together with infrastructure damage. A single environmental service related to reducing greenhouse gas emissions was further considered. Although the present costs of control under the two strategies are considerable ($4.10–4.95 million over 12 years at a 5% discount rate), they are far outweighed by the present benefits to the livestock industry from reduced competition ($46.3 million), as well as to society as a whole through reduced greenhouse gas emissions ($32.1 million). Including reduced infrastructure damage, the net present value of control is $75.2 million under strategy 1 and $73.3 million under strategy 2 (over 12 years at a 5% discount rate), suggesting that a control strategy based on annual removals should be preferred over a strategy of periodic removals. Given the large positive net present value of control and the robustness of the overall findings, there would appear to be a strong argument for considering the implementation of a full-scale, long-term feral camel control programme in the near future.