Abstract: Two market-based instruments, namely Enterprise Based Conservation, have been operating in western NSW since 2003. These programs provide a cost-effective alternative to the national park estate, with over 130,000 hectares across 18 sites being managed for conservation outcomes for approximately $2 per hectare per year. Ecological resilience is enhanced through a reduction in total grazing pressure, and through the control of weeds and pest animals. Providing an alternative income to traditional rain-based products improves the economic resilience of participating landholders. Maintaining people in the rural landscape allows rural communities and their services to continue to be supported, sustaining the social resilience of the often diminishing communities in rangeland areas.