Abstract: Summary Climate change adaptation is influenced by local histories, social structures and cultural norms, economic factors and political relations, which includes how people construct their relationships with the environment and with other people. This chapter proposes that the effectiveness of adaptive responses is underpinned by cultural values, and that culture can enable, constrain or limit adaptation. This chapter discusses the role that traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) plays in shaping Indigenous individuals' and communities' understandings of and responses to climatic and ecological changes in the East Kimberley region of North West Australia. It provides a brief overview of the geographical and social contexts of this case study, and then provides an overview of some of the environmental knowledge of Miriwoong seasonal calendar. The chapter also discusses how TEK includes both detailed knowledge of environmental conditions and natural resource management practices.