Abstract: In this chapter we provide an assessment of the positive and negative impacts of feral camels. The impacts of pest animals typically fall into three main categories: economic, environmental, and social/ cultural. The negative impacts of feral camels are manifested in all three areas, whereas positive impacts are largely confined to the economic arena. In this chapter we also provide an assessment of the disease risk posed by feral camels. In most instances we were able to estimate the fiscal magnitude of negative economic impacts but not of positive impacts. We were unable to estimate the monetary value of environmental or social/cultural impacts. Negative economic impacts of feral camels mainly include direct control and management costs, impacts on livestock production through camels competing with stock for food and other resources, damage of infrastructure, and damage to people and vehicles due to collisions. The annualised monetary value of direct control and management costs (including government in-kind management costs, research costs, and landholder management costs) was estimated to be $2.36 million. The annualised monetary value of costs associated with damage to infrastructure on pastoral leases, Aboriginal settlements and conservation lands, damage to the dog fence, production losses, and road accidents was estimated to be $8.93 million. The annualised benefit that accrues to landholders mainly through the selling and eating of feral camels was estimated to be $0.62 million. This equates to an annual net economic loss of $10.67 million due to feral camels. We were unable to obtain reliable estimates of the economic value of damage to remote airstrips or of camels mustered and sold by Aboriginal people. Negative environmental impacts of feral camels include damage to vegetation through feeding behaviour and trampling; suppression of recruitment in some plant species; damage to wetlands through fouling, trampling, and sedimentation; and competition with native animals for food and shelter. Feral camels have significant negative impacts on the social/cultural values of Aboriginal people. Camels damage sites, such as waterholes, that have cultural significance to Aboriginal people; they destroy bush tucker resources, reduce people’s enjoyment of natural areas, create dangerous driving conditions, and cause a general nuisance in residential areas.