Case-control evaluation of the effectiveness of the G1P[8] human rotavirus vaccine during an outbreak of rotavirus G2P[4] infection in Central Australia

Case-control evaluation of the effectiveness of the G1P[8] human rotavirus vaccine during an outbreak of rotavirus G2P[4] infection in Central Australia Journal Article

Clinical Infectious Diseases

  • Author(s): Snelling, T. L., Andrews, R. M., Kirkwood, C. D., Culvenor, S., Carapetis, J. R.
  • Published: 2011
  • Volume: 52
  • ISBN: 1058-4838

Abstract: Summary. The human rotavirus vaccine was evaluated during an outbreak of rotavirus G2P[4] infection in central Australia. No overall protective effect against hospitalization was demonstrated, raising concerns over the durability of vaccine protection against heterotypic strains. Background. Two and a half years after commencing routine vaccination with human rotavirus vaccine, an outbreak of rotavirus G2P[4] infection occurred in central Australia. Vaccine effectiveness against a P[8]-containing strain (G9P[8]) had been demonstrated previously in this setting. This subsequent outbreak provided the opportunity to evaluate vaccine effectiveness against hospitalizations for a non–vaccine-related genotype in the same population. Methods. A case-control study was nested within a cohort of vaccine-eligible children listed on a population-based immunization register. Children with rotavirus-confirmed gastroenteritis were individually matched by date of birth and Indigenous status with 4 control subjects. Results. Forty-one cases met the inclusion criteria, and 21 were severe cases among infants aged <12 months. Nineteen (46%) of 41 case patients had received 2 doses of human rotavirus vaccine, compared with 87 (53%) of 164 control subjects. Vaccine effectiveness against rotavirus-related hospitalization was 19% (odds ratio, .81; 95% confidence interval, .32–2.05) for 2 doses compared with none. On secondary analysis, there was evidence of a protective effect against disease complicated by acidosis in the subset of infants aged <12 months (odds ratio, .15; 95% confidence interval, .03–.84). Conclusions. Evidence was not found for an overall protective effect of human rotavirus vaccine against hospitalization for rotavirus disease in this setting. Post hoc analyses suggested a protective effect against severe disease in young infants.

  • Urls: https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciq101
  • Keywords: acidosis, australia, child, disease outbreaks, gastroenteritis, genotype, immunization, infant, rotavirus, rotavirus infections, rotavirus vaccines, vaccination, vaccines, infections

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Suggested Citation
Snelling, T. L., Andrews, R. M., Kirkwood, C. D., Culvenor, S., Carapetis, J. R., 2011, Case-control evaluation of the effectiveness of the G1P[8] human rotavirus vaccine during an outbreak of rotavirus G2P[4] infection in Central Australia, Volume:52, Journal Article, viewed 13 July 2024, https://www.nintione.com.au/?p=39776.

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