Abstract: Western Australia has 57 of its approximately 500 pastoral leases owned in some form by Aboriginal communities. Ownership of pastoral leases has provided many Aboriginal communities in the rangelands the opportunity to access and care for their traditional lands in a culturally meaningful way. However, inadequate governance, management and incentives pose significant challenges to the success of Aboriginal held pastoral leases, resulting in many underperforming on a range of commercial and environmental indicators. To help understand these issues and identify strategies to support the success of Aboriginal pastoralism, the Western Australian government commissioned a review of the circumstances surrounding this industry sector. The government subsequently implemented the key recommendation of the review, being the establishment of an Indigenous Pastoral Enterprise Development service. Two case studies illustrate how this service has improved commercial and ecological outcomes on Aboriginal held pastoral leases. The case studies also provide a model for utilising the rangelands economic potential for Aboriginal communities while developing the capacity to appropriately care for its natural assets.