Abstract: While there have been improvements in the health and wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians in recent years, some long-standing challenges remain. (To acknowledge the separate Indigenous peoples of Australia, the term 'Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people' is preferred in AIHW publications—however, the term 'Indigenous' is used interchangeably when referring to Indigenous status or when it assists readability.) Across many indicators, Indigenous Australians remain disadvantaged compared with non-Indigenous Australians. Many factors contribute to the gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous health. Social disadvantage, such as lower education and employment rates, is a factor, as well as higher smoking rates, poor nutrition, physical inactivity and poor access to health services. This chapter presents information on the characteristics and health status of the Indigenous population, including their self-assessed health, common long-term health conditions, life expectancy and death rates. Corresponding results for the non-Indigenous population are included. Information is also presented on health behaviours, social determinants of health and access to health services specific to the Indigenous population. The feature articles in the chapter focus on interactions among various groups of factors that affect the health of Indigenous Australians: - 'Remoteness and the health of Indigenous Australians' explores the impact of remoteness on Indigenous health in the context of risk factors, health conditions and service use. - 'The size and causes of the Indigenous health gap' analyses Indigenous health outcomes to determine the effect of social and behavioural factors on the health gap, and the extent to which individual factors contribute to the gap.