Application of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model for the development of a community pharmacy ear health intervention for rural populations

Application of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model for the development of a community pharmacy ear health intervention for rural populations Journal Article

International Journal of Pharmacy Practice

  • Author(s): Taylor, S., Cairns, A., Glass, B.
  • Published: 2021
  • Volume: 29
  • ISBN: 0961-7671

Abstract: The World Health Organisation has identified ear disease to be a major public health problem in rural and remote communities, with access to services an identified barrier. (1) Rural community pharmacists are recognised as highly skilled, accessible and trusted health professionals. An innovative service “LISTEN UP” (Locally Integrated Screening and Testing Ear aNd aUral Program) has been implemented in two remote community pharmacies in Australia. The service involves patients with an ear complaint self-presenting to a participating pharmacy and receiving a clinical examination by a pharmacist, who has completed accredited training in ear health, otoscopy and tympanometry. “LISTEN UP” has been developed using the PRECEDE-PROCEED planning model.(2) The PRECEDE component of the model assesses social, epidemiological, behavioural, environmental, educational and ecological factors to inform the development of an intervention.(2) The PROCEED-component consists of pilot testing and evaluation.To describe an ecological approach to health promotion via the application of the PRECEDE-PROCEED planning model to develop a rural community pharmacy-based ear health intervention.PRECEDE (Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Constructs in Educational Diagnosis) provided a framework to plan and develop a locally relevant and community focused program. This included research and engagement via meetings, surveys and interviews of consumers, pharmacists, health professionals and stakeholders. PROCEED (Policy, Regulatory, and Organisational Constructs in Educational and Environmental Development) outlined the structure for implementing and evaluating the intervention that was developed in the PRECEDE process. A pilot study has been included in PROCEED segment to allow improvement before implementing and evaluating the final model. Data will be collected in the pilot study via semi-structured interviews and surveys. This will be analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis of qualitative data.As part of the PRECEDE segment a social assessment was undertaken via mixed method studies of rural consumers, pharmacists and health professionals. Hearing testing was ranked as the seventh (from twenty-six) most important expanded pharmacy service by both consumer and health professional groups. An epidemiological assessment found extensive ear disease in rural and remote locations resulting in complications and hearing loss. Behavioural and environment assessments identified eleven ear health interventions which include hearing screening [3], otoscopy pilot studies [2], audiometry services [1], specific education for undergraduate pharmacy students [2] and a pharmacy-based clinic [3]. However none of the interventions described a framework for continued service provision. Policy and regulation assessment was undertaken to align the intervention within the regulatory framework. The application of this model is partially complete with the study protocol for the intervention developed and the initial pilot study in progress. This study’s strengths include its applicability to rural populations and the limited evidence base that currently exists. It is however limited by the small size of the pilot study and application of this model to a national intervention would be useful for future.The application of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model demonstrates the applicability of this planning model for developing and evaluating an ear health intervention with a particular focus on community pharmacies in rural and remote locations.1. World Health Organisation. Deafness and hearing loss; 2020. Available from: [Accessed: 15/9/2020]2. Binkley CJ, Johnson KW. Application of the PRECEDE-PROCEED Planning Model in Designing an Oral Health Strategy. J Theory Pract Dent Public Health. 2013;1(3):

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Taylor, S., Cairns, A., Glass, B., 2021, Application of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model for the development of a community pharmacy ear health intervention for rural populations, Volume:29, Journal Article, viewed 13 June 2024,

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