Abstract: Background: There remains an ongoing, urgent need for new drugs to combat human diseases. Plants have been a prime source of highly effective conventional drugs. The ethnopharmacological approach has been shown to be very successful.Aboriginal people maintain the oldest culture on Earth and have used plants as medicines for centuries. It is important to ensure that the Traditional Knowledge is protected such that benefits flow to Aboriginal people. Aims: To demonstrate how Western science can work with Aboriginal medicinal knowledge, with the goal of empowering Aboriginal communitiesboth culturally and economically. To use ethnomedical knowledge as a guide to identifying and developing plant compounds that may be useful in ameliorating or curing human diseases.