Abstract: This paper reports initial field studies and modelling of carbon stocks under alternative fire regimes in northern rangelands. The field studies in the Victoria River District suggested that fire regime had no effect on aboveground carbon stocks (AGC) in an open grassland/shrubland. In an open Eucalypt woodland the overall effect of fire season was not significant and the effect of fire frequency was inconsistent. However, modelling suggested that regular burning to maintain low woody density and promote grass production will reduce above- and below-ground carbon stocks in the open woodland. The opportunities for pastoralists to increase carbon stocks by reducing fire frequency are limited in many regions and will depend on vegetation type and current fire regime. Any carbon gains are likely to be modest and will be associated with greater tree and shrub density, which may adversely affect pasture and livestock production.