Abstract: This work addresses questions which are of central interest to scholars of public policy in all liberal democracies. How can we correctly identify the outcomes of public policies? How can we and how should we judge those effects, especially where policies emerge from intense political conflict between groups with divergent views of what represents a desirable outcome? How can we explain the policy outcomes we observe? Where outcomes are not regarded favourably, how can we achieve different and more positive results? The book develops an alternative way of dealing with these questions at a conceptual level, making it of interest to the wide community of scholars and policy analysts. It does so in a context which renders the book of particular interest to scholars, policy-makers and activists concerned with the inter-relationship between indigenous peoples and resource development. It examines the effects of Australia's policies on uranium mining on Aboriginal people, analyzing the policy rhetoric underlying government actions, tracing through careful research the actual outcomes resulting from uranium policy on Aboriginal communities in the Alligator Rivers Region and explaining and interpreting policy outcomes. 1. Program and Policy Evaluation: Fundamental Problems and Issues 2. Policy Implementation 3. Uranium Policy in Australia, 1969-1992 4. Policy Implementation and Policy Outcomes: Employment and Training Programs 5. Explaining and Evaluating Policy Outcomes: Employment and Training 6. Aboriginal Mining Payments: Ranger Uranium 7. Aboriginal Mining Payments: Nabarlek 8. Mining Payments: Explaining Policy Outcomes 9. Evaluating Policy Outcomes: Mining Payments 10. Conclusion.