Abstract: This document provides a short Final Report for Desert Knowledge CRC Project Criteria for Defining Areas of High Conservation Value in the Rangelands, a small project contracted by the Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH) in late 2005 in the form of a workshop (see Appendix). The objective of the workshop was to draw on key ecological, management and policy expertise to define a state-of-the-art rationale for the mapping of high conservation value (HCV) areas in the rangelands, and, if necessary, to develop the approach required to test and implement this mapping. Workshop rationale: For a number of years there have been concerns in various agencies that approaches to identifying areas of high conservation value used for other regions of Australia may not provide the best outcomes in the rangelands. In response to these concerns, the Australian Government DEH has sought to explore alternative approaches and this workshop was intended to bring together the thinking and expertise around the subject. Amongst other matters, a better basis for defining areas of high conservation value will assist priority-setting for public investment at a variety of scales, including both traditional activities such as reserve acquisition, as well as more contemporary issues such as regional plan accreditation, incentives and off-reserve conservation actions.