Abstract: We begin this evaluation with a brief history of buffel grass in Australia, followed by an examination of the advantages and disadvantages of buffel grass to the pastoral industry. We consider other benefits, such as rehabilitation of degraded land and dust control. Negative outcomes in relation to conservation values, non-pastoral industries, Indigenous community values, increased fire hazard and health impacts are outlined. It is clear from benefit-cost analyses, undertaken by others and summarised here, that it is easier to assess the economic benefits and costs of buffel grass to production, than to other land uses, particularly conservation. It is more difficult still to assess environmental, social and cultural benefits and costs. This does not imply that economic benefits of buffel grass to production outweigh other considerations but rather that we lack the tools to adequately assess other aspects.